Mian-Yu-Ting Cemetery, Johor (Part II)
by Choo Ai Loon
(Ai Loon continues from part one of her blog post on Mian-Yu-Ting Cemetery )
Among the tombstones at the Mian-Yu-Ting , is one belonging to Wu You-Xun (邬有询), which pays tribute to his alma mater, Chinese High School (華僑中學 in traditional Chinese characters)
A student with a promising future, Wu You-Xun (邬有询) aspired to become a doctor, In 1920, after completing his Senior Cambridge examination (equivalent to GCE “O” levels) , he enrolled at Chinese High. He graduated among the first batch of students, two years later. In the graduation year book, he was described as a hardworking student who “had no time to chit-chat as time was too precious”.
Wu excelled in English and was a committee member of an English speech society, which I presume was the “Nanyang version of the Toastmasters Club”, and chief editor of an English magazine.
But alas! Wu passed away at just 22 years old, a year after graduation. Inscribed on his tombstone is “graduate of Chinese High School” is a reflection of how proud he must been of his school
In contrast, one grave has only 3 characters inscribed but no name. Gu-ren-mu (古人墓), literally means “the tomb of someone who has passed away”.
This typical Teochew tomb which resembles an arm chair, a pair of couplets in red on the scroll pillars.
The arms of the tomb curve gracefully and there is a dragonhead carved on it The usual practice of depicting the whole dragon it seems has been adapted to just a dragon’s head. I have observed these variations in motifs and representations. This dragon appeared benign compared to the fierce-looking ones found in older tomb carvings.
Another grave had steps leading up the tombstone perhaps imitating a stupa, influenced by Buddhism.
The Tomb of She Mian-Wang
She Mian-Wang (佘勉旺), belonged to a wealthy Teochew family. The surname “She” is more commonly spelt as Sia or Seah.
The She Mian-Wang family profile in Johor parallels that of the Seah Eu Chin in Singapore. Both families had made their fortune from the cultivation and trade of gambier.
Seah Eu Chin’s tomb was discovered in 2012 within Greater Bukit Brown, in a forested area called Grave Hill in Toa Payoh West, Singapore. He co-founded and led the Ngee Ann Kongsi in Singapore, to look after the religious needs and welfare of early Teochew migrant workers.
Similarly, She Mian-Wang was an important figure in the Ngee Heng Kongsi The enormous plot size and the expansive tomb arms of She’s grave reflects his status and wealth in those days. Interestingly, his tablet is enshrined and worshipped at Pu Zhao Chan Si Temple (普照禅寺) in Singapore.
So could these two powerful families in the Teochew community be related? I leave you with this parting thought .
My thanks once again to Mr Bak Jia How and Mr Pek Wee-Chuen for the insightful and enjoyable tour of Mian-Yu-Ting.
Thanks to Mr Bak Jia How and Mr Pek Wee-Chuen for the insightful and enjoyable tour.
Choo Ai Loon, works as a translator and is passionate about art and heritage, She supports Hair for Hope for children with cancer. She blogs at http://chooailoon.wordpress.com/2013/05/05/hair-for-hope-2013/
霹靂州太平華聯中學初中三畢業，自中學開始對本邦歷史民俗 深感興趣，畢業後，一面協助父親小販事業，一面進行田野調查工作。並以李桃李、峇峇球等筆名，發表文章於報章雜志上。2004年成為全職的文史田野工作 者，足迹踏遍我国多个地方及国外多个国家。他也是《星洲日报·田野行脚》專欄作者。
English Introduction to the talks :
1) The Architecture and Culture of Tombs Belonging to the Five Dialect Groups in Perak
Lee Eng Kew
Eng Kew’s interest in local history and traditional customs manifested itself when he was in secondary school. After graduation, he helped out at his father’s hawker stall while pursuing his interests. In 2004, he became a full time researcher. He also writes a column for the Sin Chew Jit Poh.
This talk focuses on the architecture of tombs in Chinese cemeteries in Taiping, Ipoh and Sitiawan. The tombs examined belong to the Hokkien, Hakka, Cantonese, Teochew and Hock Chew styles.
2)A Study of the Chinese Cemetery and Tombstones in Pengarang
Bak Jia How
A graduate of Jinan University in Guangzhou, Jia How obtained his Masters in the School of International Studies in Beijing University. He was a history teacher in the Kulai branch of Foon Yew High School. He is currently a freelance historian.
Although there were Chinese settlers in Pengarang by the 1830s, historical texts make scant mention of them. In view of this, the old tombstones found in the cemeteries in the area are an invaluable resource for historical research on the chinese communities of Pengarang.
As part of Bukit Brown : Our Roots, Our Future, a series of talks were programmed to enrich the exhibition which was held at the Chui Huay Lim Club, the co-organiser of the exhibition.
Speaker Dr Imran bin Tajudeen gave insights into Singapura’s Historic Cemetery at Jalan Kubor which has royal roots. Several old settlements existed in Singapore besides the Temenggong’s estuarine settlement at Singapore River before Raffles’ arrival in 1819. Among these, Kampung Gelam and the Rochor and Kallang River banks were also sites of historic graveyards related to old settlements of Singapura both before and during colonial rule. The Jalan Kubor cemetery is the only sizable cemetery grounds still largely undisturbed. It belongs with Kampung Gelam history but has been excluded from the “Kampong Glam Conservation District” boundary, and is important for several reasons. It forms part of the old royal port town that was developed when Tengku Long of Riau was installed as Sultan Hussein in Singapore, and is aligned along the royal axis of the town. It is also the final resting place of several traders of diverse ethnicity from the old port towns of our region – neighbouring Riau, Palembang, and Pontianak, as well as Banjarmasin and the Javanese and Bugis ports further afield. Some of these individuals are buried in family enclosures, mausolea, or clusters. Conversely, there are also hundreds of graves of unnamed individuals from Kampung Gelam and surrounding areas. The tombstone forms and epigraphy reflect this immense socio-cultural diversity, and were carved in Kampung Gelam by Javanese and Chinese stone carvers, except for a number of special cases. Several large trees of great age are also found in this lush ‘pocket park’. The talk discusses the histories that can be retrieved from this important site and the dire need to protect it.
Dr Imran bin Tajudeen is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Architecture, NUS. His research interests centre around vernacular urbanism, house and mosque architecture in Southeast Asia, and critical perspectives in urban heritage studies. Of relevance to this talk is his article, ‘Reading the Traditional City in Maritime Southeast Asia: Reconstructing the 19th century Port Town at Gelam-Rochor-Kallang, Singapore,’ published in the Journal of Southeast Asian Architecture in 2005. His research papers have won prizes at major international conferences, including the ICAS Book Prize 2011 for the best PhD paper in the field of Social Sciences.
The iBBC App Guide is a FREE App to accompany you when you visit Bukit Brown Chinese Cemetery. It has been developed by the The Bukit Brown Cemetery Documentation Project led Dr Hui Yew Foong. Brownie Khoo Ee Hoon designed the artwork of the map. There will be physical markers on site to guide the way.
Download your App from the Google Android store now, here
Check out a video demo on how it works here
And once you have downloaded you can test the application here before heading to Bukit Brown!
Note: This is a sample of a few tombs. The the App itself has data of over 20 tombs introducing you to the pioneers buried there.
Those with accompanying numbers e.g. Tok Cheng Tuan 1948 are staked and and will be exhumed. to make way for the eight lane highway. You only have a few months left before you can catch this tomb in all its magnificent glory.
The Wayang in the Tombs
by Ang Yik Han
(Popular tales performed in Chinese Wayang carved in iconic scenes on tomb panels.)
In the ” Romance of the Three Kingdoms” General Guan Yu is immortalised as the epitome of loyalty and righteousness. He played a significant role in the establishment of the state of Shu Han during the period of the Three Kingdoms.
Legend? Embroidered truth? It does not matter, over the ages from at least the Ming Dynasty, the image of Guan Yu smiling and sipping his wine while Hua Tuo scrapped his arm bone has been a source of wonder and encouragement for many.
This tomb is located in Hill 2 and belongs to the Teo Family.
More tombs featuring Guan Yu, here
From Madam White Snake :
From Nezha conquers the Dragon King :
The panels can be seen at the tombs of Poh Cheng Tee and his wife, and mother, in Hill 1, stake numbers 1017 – 1019. Exhumation of staked tombs in the way of the 8 lane highway is expected to begin after April 15th
The editor, Lisa Li, tells us some schools have taken up these lesson plans for use in class.
“We hope the new site is easier to navigate, with additional features such as a Calendar of Events (educational), Google Translate, more country tags and more regular content (contributed by editors, individuals, NGOs and other organizations),” she writes.
She asks for contributions to this site by:
1) Sharing your educational materials (lesson plans, opinion pieces) for publishing on SchoolAsia.Org.
2) Keeping us updated with any Asia-based educational events you know of, so that we can feature it on our Calendar (we’ve included 3 events by Peranakan Museum as an example). We’ll try to keep track of what’s going on on our own, but it is best to email email@example.com.
The website: http://schoolasia.org is a free-access, crowd-sourced, carefully-curated storehouse of lesson plans, stories, discussions & ideas focused on improving education in Singapore. Lesson plan topics revolve around current affairs, humanities and the arts.
The unique feature of this website is that it crowd-sources good quality lesson plans with a local context that teachers can use straightaway in their classes. With this website, we hope to tap on the energy and resources of passionate individuals and organisations to support teachers.
Our aim is also to make it easier for academics, NGOs & other organisations to connect directly to the classroom through lesson plans for teachers. We believe such specialised knowledge would definitely enrich lessons in schools.
This is in line with a key objective of all things Bukit Brown, which was conceived as an educational tool for students and teachers to self-guide. Our blog was born out of the twin desire to record history and, in a nod to our pioneers, contribute to education by sharing what we learn and find. We urge teachers and students to look into these case studies provided by SchoolAsia.org.
By Norman Cho
My Grandfather – Cho Kim Leong
Someone once told me that no one is truly dead until the last person who remembers him is gone. This statement is one I totally agree with! I may not have known my grandfather directly, but he still lives in the memories of those who knew him and in the stories of him that I learned from them. Far from be any luminary in the social history of Malaya, he was just an ordinary man-in-the-street with his own personal story…
Cho Kim Leong was born in Malacca in 1902, into an upper-middle class Peranakan family who lived in Heeren Street, a popular residential district amongst well-to-do families. The two known addresses that the family occupied were 84 Heeren Street and 151 Heeren Street. It was not known which of these two townhouses he was born in, but documental references in his adult years suggested unit 151. He was the son of Malaya’s pioneer plantation-owner (for gambier, tapioca and rubber), Cho Poo, and his third wife Kong Moey Yean. He later became the manager of his father’s rubber estates in Johore. Little else was known about his early years.
Starting His Family
He was married in Malacca around 1924 and had one son and two daughters. This was his first marriage. He became a young widower in 1933 when his wife fell ill and died. Soon, he looked for a second marriage in hope for a wife who could care for his young children. In 1934, he was introduced to my grandmother – a Singapore nyonya, Yeo Koon Neo (1913 – 1995), whom he married after several months of courtship. A typical date could consist of sightseeing via a trishaw ride, a leisurely stroll along the Esplanade, a movie at the Capitol Theatre or a casual chat over a meal. Their marriage took place in Singapore but he whisked her off to his hometown in Malacca to settle down. They had their first child, Charlie Cho, in 1935, the man who would become my father. During the same year, his mother passed away and left him the rubber estates in Johore. My cosmopolitan grandmother was feeling bored in the sleepy town of Malacca and longed for her Singapore family. She managed to successfully persuade grandfather to resettle in Singapore.
Life in Singapore
Grandfather relocated his family to Singapore in 1936 and settled down at modest bungalow in 421, Joo Chiat Road (Katong). Grandmother was very pleased as she had many relatives living in Joo Chiat-Katong, an enclave of the Peranakans. My maternal great-grandmother came over and lived with them. I suppose she wanted to be close to my father, her toddler grandson. This was the year that great-grandmother turned 60 years of age, a very important age for the Chinese. It is known as the Tua Seh-Jit (Grand Birthday). Grandfather, being a filial son-in-law, threw a big birthday party for her and invited chong poh (Hainanese chef) to cook for friends and relatives who had come in attendance. Trays of kueh koo were served to symbolically mark the occasion. These red-coloured pastries in the shape of the tortoise symbolize longevity. Earlier in the morning, grandfather had personally prepared the longevity noodle and served it to his mother-in-law for breakfast. This noodle (mee suah) was prepared with an egg and served with the sugar syrup that had been boiled with the Pandan leaves.
The following year, another son was born. They named him George. Life was looking rosy for grandfather and his family. Grandfather would indulge in simple hobbies like solving crossword puzzles, reading, collecting coins, listening to music and indulging in his regular dose of Guinness Stout. I recently learned that he was quite good at solving crossword puzzles as he had won the first prize for a submission in 1927. (http://newspapers.nl.sg/Digitised/Article.aspx?articleid=singfreepressb19271029.2.100.1)
I eventually inherited grandfather’s cache of coin-collecting which included coins that dated back to the reign of Queen Victoria. I also inherited grandfather’s Guinness bottle-cap opener in the shape of a nude female. It was a gift from Guinness Stout for drinking a specific number of bottles. For some strange petty reason, grandmother confiscated it from him. She did not like the idea of him being tantalized by nude female, even if it was in the form of a bottle-cap opener! Another prized possession that I had inherited from grandfather is the commemorative plate of the coronation of King Edward VIII in 1936. Grandfather was a loving father who had my dad weaned on Quaker Oats until he was almost one year old! The plate was given after six cans of Quaker Oats had been purchased. Not only was he a loving father, he was an affectionate husband as well.
Grandmother was the Elizabeth Taylor of the family… While grandfather was busy earning money, Grandmother would be busy collecting jewellery. He simply could not understand why she needed so many pieces. He had already given her a fair collection of jewellery. Whenever grandmother was not given money for her jewellery spree, she would give him the cold shoulders. The soft-hearted man would eventually give in to his wife’s indulgence.
The War Years
In the late 1930s, grandmother’s fifth sister and her brood of seven children had come to live with our family. Her husband’s business was not doing well and he had to travel to Malaya to solicit for business. Grandfather was a man with a golden heart. He took in his sister-in-law and her children, and looked after them. With war imminent in 1942, two more of grandmother’s sisters and two of her brothers took refuge in their matrimonial home.
Grandfather became the sole provider for his family and his in-laws. With commodities at black-market prices, his money was fast running out by 1944. He asked if grandmother would be willing to part with some of her jewellery but she strongly protested. She gave an excuse that they would not be worth very much anyway. Reluctantly, he sold his rubber estates in May 1945, not knowing that the war was going to end in a mere three months.
The war ended in August 1945 and grandfather had lost his inheritance and was left with bundles of worthless Japanese Banana banknotes. The depressed and frail man who had not been in good health during the war years finally died on 16 December 1945, exactly four months after the war. His penniless widow with two sons (aged 10 & 8) in tow, hurriedly buried him and left him in an unmarked grave for the next 66 years…
(Norman had earlier written about finding this grave.)
His Children Remember
There are not many living relatives who remember Cho Kim Leong personally. However, I managed to find out a little more of the man from his children – my father and my aunt. They remembered him as a stern father and a traditionalist who staunchly upheld his principles. They also thought that he was a loving and caring family man who was filial to his elders. He was generous to everyone who needed help. This Father’s Day, the descendants salute Cho Kim Leong for being an exemplary human being and an outstanding father!
Norman wrote earlier about building a tomb for his grandfather.
Editor’s note: Norman has documented how he searched for his grandfather’s final resting place, researching his life, and shared how you can trace your own ancestry. His journey continues as he builds on his knowledge of his roots. Do you have a similar story to share? Whatever the stage of your quest, we support your quest and will blog your journey. We have introduced long-lost cousins to cousins, paired different branches of families. We honour your stories, and will help you share them here as you seek more answers. Write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org
饮水思源 Remember The Source of the Water
Elizabeth Ong and Emma Lim
By Catherine Lim
In 2002 in London and Scotland, two Singapore couples stationed in the United Kingdom, welcomed new arrivals, both girls. Born four months apart, the Ongs in London named their daughter Elizabeth and she was their second child. The Lims in Scotland named their daughter, Emma and she was their first born
In 2006, after 13 years abroad, the Ongs returned home to Singapore because they felt it was time for their young family to root themselves to their country and they returned to the family home which with their children now houses 4 generations. Their children, elder brother Alexander to Elizabeth were enrolled in Nanyang Primary School and because they were still very young adapted well.
In 2010, the Lims after 12 years abroad returned home for very much the same reasons, to be with family and reconnect to their homeland. By then Emma had a brother and a sister. Their grandparents had visited them frequently when they were in Scotland and the grandchildren settled down comfortably in Singapore, all under one roof. Emma was able to enroll in Nanyang Primary School.
In 2011 Elizabeth and Emma met for the first time. They barely spoke in the first term of school but by term two their friendship just took off. Both are in the choir; Emma sings alto, and Elizabeth second soprano. Their passions are artistic. Dance lessons for Emma every weekend, and Elizabeth has been talking art lessons since 2007. Their mothers met and play dates were arranged whenever the girls had free moments in their busy schedules of school and extra curricula activities. But mostly the girls just text each other when apart.
As their friendship grew so did their mothers’. It was not long before they realised they had similar experiences of living abroad and coming home. When their husbands came into the picture, the Ong and Lim families found a deeper connection which reached back into Singapore’s past and found another friendship which their daughters’ echoed.
Lim Boon Keng and Khoo Seok Wan
By Ang Yik Han
One was the dapper son of a rich rice merchant from China, a poet and scholar who sat for the Imperial exams. The other was a local born Western trained doctor, recognised by government and society as one of the leading voices of the Straits Chinese community. Khoo Seok Wan and Lim Boon Keng made an unlikely pair of friends. But the historical and political milieu of their times gave birth to unlikely pairings.
Both men were supporters of the reformist movement in China which sought to re-vitalise the Qing Dynasty. Khoo founded the Thien Nan Shin Bao, a local Chinese newspaper sympathetic to the reformist cause; Lim Boon Keng was its English editor. Subsequently, Lim and his father-in-law took over another Chinese newspaper which also adopted the reformist line.
When Kang Youwei, the leader of the reformists, fled China after the Reform’s failure, Khoo offered him shelter in Singapore and sucour for the cause. With the threat of assassins dispatched by the Qing government hanging over Kang, Lim worked with Khoo and the Straits Settlements authorities to protect him. Kang moved three times during his short stay of five months in Singapore. The first two places were properties belonging to Khoo Seok Wan and the third hideout was none other than Lim Boon Keng’s house.
The two also combined their efforts in education and social reform. They established the Singapore Chinese Girls School with other progressive members of the Chinese community at a time when the proper place of women was at home and female education was look upon with disdain. Half of the funds for the school ($3000) were contributed by Khoo Seok Wan and both men served on the inaugural Board of the school.
Khoo’s role in society was greatly diminished in the years following his bankruptcy. He became destitute and had to scrap a living with his pen. Even then, the friendship continued.
The Ong family has in their possession a book of calligraphy and original paintings which belonged to Khoo Seok Wan.
This book bears the signatures of various guests who had the honour of leafing through it, including Lim Boon Keng who visited in February 1927. By then, his full time job was the Chancellor of the Amoy University. Lim’s occasional trips back to Singapore were primarily for the never ending task of raising funds for the University, yet somehow he found time to visit his old friend. This signature is testimony to their enduring friendship.
Post script on Emma and Elizabeth
Emma on her friend, Elizabeth:
Elizabeth is pretty and cute.
Elizabeth is smart, funny and my BFF.
Elizabeth has a kind heart and always helps me when I am in need.
Elizabeth on her friend, Emma:
Emma is my BFF and she is fun and exciting to be with.
She always sticks by me through thick and thin.
Emma is pretty and she is a true friend to me.
By Lyra Tan Ai-Ling
Today, my mind flits back to Bukit Brown and the stroll I took yesterday (April 21, 2012).
Yes, the cemetery. Sure it’s not exactly rolling hills. But the well-trodden paths among the lush rambling greenery and the bits of bush you have to push past, slapping twigs and leaves leaving streaks of rainwater and mud all over your clothes has a strange charm that appeals to the inner adventurer. Nevermind the fact that I had to pull myself out of bed at 6.30am in the morning to get there by 9am- this was something worth getting out of bed for.
And it was on that note that I found it ironic that our little group, despite the National Environment Agency (NEA) issued flood warning and the pouring rain, continued happily traipsing through the mud and grass, umbrellas of all colours unfurling around us. What is this deterrence you speak of? In fact, after a 3 hour walk, we took a quick pit stop at the toilets and abandoned the wet umbrellas in the cars- diving right back into the thick of things with another 2 hour trek in the glorious after-rain coolness.
Look, I don’t pretend to be any kind of history buff. In fact, I didn’t even take history as an elective in secondary school. The textbook bored me. How could something on a page, about days gone far, far by be something that I needed to know or remember? I loathed memorization. I didn’t take history as a subject.
But living history is a whole other story. History you can see, history you can hear. Even better, history that you can touch.
So it is really something when you get to run your fingers across the engraved characters of a headstone, in gold, red or green. When you mentally whisper an apology when you have to borrow a tomb wall for a foothold as you scramble up the slippery hill to the next new find. Standing in a silent circle in the pounding rain, listening to Dr. Lim Su Min sing a love song to an ancestor. History and heritage is in the experiences. Don’t stop at the classrooms and libraries. In the field is where it really blooms.
Now I know what it means to want to keep this beautiful piece of Singapore. I have to admit that I was bothered by the fact that it was going to go to make way for a new highway, but I never really gave it that much thought- another process in our ever-speedy development that I’d just have to get used to. But after yesterday’s walk, that changed.
There’s a heightened sense of connectedness you get from visiting this place somehow- in the words of Hoo Kuan Cien as we commenced the second half of our tour- “I feel so Singaporean right now”. This is intangible- it is something you cannot teach people from a textbook. It’s a feeling, a belonging, an ownership. It is something brought out of you- something that you ARE, something that comes to you as a realization. When you get rid of the old and keep rolling in the new, you create a people with short term memory. What do you expect Singaporeans to feel connected to if you keep getting rid of things that they have to remember our history and heritage by?
So seriously, if you haven’t taken a trip to Bukit Brown, I urge you to give it a go, before it’s gone to our ever-constant obsession with the want of a faster journey from A to B. Better still, save Bukit Brown, so that generations to come can go there to make their own discoveries.
Lyra Tan, a 17 year old Arts Business Management student and theatre enthusiast from Ngee Ann Polytechnic shares her thoughts and reflections on Bukit Brown after her first tour there on a rainy Saturday, 21 April.
by Andrew Tan
In Bukit Brown Cemetery, an avenue, like prime real estate, connects Singapore’s prominent families—all inter-related, as these powerful cliques were linked by arranged marriages to perpetuate their wealth and influence through six generations, during 150 years of British rule (1819 to 1959).
The earliest Asian elites in Singapore were comprador-kapitans from Malacca, who brokered with European (mainly British) companies, exclusive credit and arms deals. To procure native products for Europeans, compradors resourced from powerful clan headmen who controlled the supply of coolie labour, ships, and native products—crucial to entrepot success. Business partnerships were tied by arranged marriages between all families.
Family examples: Tan Tock Seng and his family network supplied and distributed manufactures for the British “country traders”; they also married influential relatives of the compradors and Kapitan Cina. Together, this was the first powerful clique in Singapore, which broadened (after Singapore’s cessation as entrepot of the opium-arms trade following British victory over Qing China) to include revenue farmers and labour contractors as their enterprises penetrated Southeast Asia.
From 1867, with Singapore a crown colony, the long established families recruited scholars and professionals as sons-in-law, to perpetuate their vested interests (e.g. tax-free “free trade” policies, opium farms, colonial intervention in tin-rich Malaya) through positions in the advisory board and councils at the municipal, rural and legislative level; appointments rotated among relatives (who advised the Governor on nominations) to ensure advantageous policy continuity.
The immediate decades after Suez Canal opened in 1869 diverted oceanic traffic through Singapore. To compete internationally, merchant families pooled their resources into joint-venture consortiums (in steamships); their offspring intermarried too. Ties between in-laws counted more than paper contracts.
Family examples: Notable Queen scholars (Lim Boon Keng, Song Ong Siang etc) and other top professionals were sons-in-law of well established merchant-shipping families like the Wee-Ho Hong-Lee group, as well as others who partnered in Straits Steamship.
Insatiable demand for World War One commodities (tin, rubber) produced the first multi-millionaires in Singapore: these nouveaux-riches—their heirs and heiresses were courted and charmed by Old Money. Merging New Money with Old gave birth to multifamily-owned conglomerates (e.g. OCBC, UOB, Straits Steamship) tying together banks, ships, plantations, factories and newspapers.
Large fortunes would aggrandize social ambition: Plutocrats usurped collective and consular institutions (e.g. Ngee Ann Kongsi, Chinese Chambers of Commerce), to connect with powerful Chinese warlords of lucrative market potential, offering to regimes funds for schools and humanitarian relief, using family-controlled newspaper editorials to galvanize mass involvement.
Ability to lead the Chinese masses into action was recognized by the British military; however, these plutocrats on war councils were relocated with their families to India just weeks before the Japanese Occupation.
Family examples: Families from shipping, commodities, revenue farming, and remittances, co-founded the conglomerates of OCBC and UOB, with ties to the burgeoning sectors like film and publishing, and family connections in politics.
1945-1959 Turning Point
In postwar Singapore, enriched by military contracts in the Cold War, scions used their wealth to contest for elected self-government, but the expanded, impoverished electorate rejected these “rich men’s parties” (Progressive Party and Democratic Party, whose members were related, merged into the Liberal Socialist Party), in favour of a new regime, the People’s Action Party (PAP).
Family examples: Contracts were monopolized by consortiums who subcontracted to each other. Chain of suppliers for the British military coalesced and expanded to retail giants.
1959 onwards Decline
Following Singapore’s independence under the PAP, the old elites diminished in economic influence: their once-predominant, century-old monopoly of colonial contracts was overshadowed by the growth of public state-sector industries in partnership with foreign multinationals. Attrition too, their vast landholdings compulsorily acquired by the state for redevelopment.
Their hereditary clan-leadership in communities has been subsumed by government departments that fund and run all neighbourhood activities and amenities. More than cultural and community centres, clans were once the centre of powerful labour unions. They once ran schools; but today, the Education Ministry syllabus and compulsory mandarin has created a generation disconnected with their dialect heritage, previously stressed in clan schools.
Arranged marriages and pedigrees became obsolete as post-war mass education broadened careers and widened choices in life partners. Also, professionalization broke down class barriers. The Women’s Charter in 1961 ended the quasi-feudal family structure.
As Singapore developed to become a middle class society, a new breed of technocrats allied with the PAP replaced the Old Establishment.
A multifamily tree, with 1000 people from 100 families, 6 generations interlinked in strategic alliances from the late 1700s to now, will be published in 2012. I shed light on the influential cliques (made up of powerful families) who dominated Singapore’s society and economy past two hundred years. Andrew Tan