For those of us Brownies stumped when asked by participants on the tours for the years of birth and death in an ancient counting system, one CHUA Chee Hiang has kindly stepped forward with this handy guide. Thank you, Chee Hiang!
He says, “Most of the dates on the tombstones follow the lunar calendar format – the 年(lunar) (followed by xx月， 初xx) vs. the 岁(solar). The Chinese calendar is lunisolar as the lunar calendar is constantly being updated with the solar calendar to keep the festival dates in tune with the climate.”
And for the Imperial calendars, this is the guide, with the Emperor’s regnal year being Year Zero. So 13th year of the reign of Dao Guang (1821-1850) on Fang Shan’s tomb = 1833.
For further reading:
The Info.Media Club from Henderson Secondary School would like to express their deepest and heartiest thanks to Leong Kwok Peng, Faizah Jamal, Catherine Lim and Alan OwYong for their tremendous help in their submission of the 5 minute documentary on Social Responsibility of Forgotten Places. The video focused on why we need to conserve public spaces like cemeteries in the fast paced lifestyle of Singaporeans.The team is humbled by the generosity of everyone in helping out.
Due to their assistance, the team obtained the Platinum Award for the School’s Digital Media Award, one of the highly acclaimed competition held by MOE and judged by a team of professionals from the media industry. Only 3 out of the 500 over submissions obtained the platinum award.
In their own words:
Social Responsibility of ‘Forgotten Places
This documentary aims to educate the public on the importance of cemeteries and graveyards. It showcases the reasons why it is our social responsibility to ensure that these places are conserved.
So the time has come….
LAND TRANSPORT AUTHORITY OF SINGAPORE
FINAL NOTICE OF EXHUMATION OF GRAVES (PART OF) AT
BUKIT BROWN AND SEH ONG CEMETERIES
First published in the Government Gazette, Electronic Edition, on 28th February 2013 at 5.00 pm.
NOTE: Link is live for 1 week only. Pls save file before then.
Key points extracted from Gazette
LTA would also like to inform claimants who have registered their claims of ancestors’ remains, that the exhumation of the Affected Graves will be carried out in stages after 15th April 2013. All registered claimants will be notifi ed via post prior to the exhumation date. No further notice or reminder will be issued after this Notice.
IMPORTANT INFORMATION FOR CLAIMANTS EXHUMATION AND CREMATION RELATING TO CLAIMED GRAVES.
- Each grave will be exhumed individually under the supervision of an officer from LTA.
- All exhumed remains will be cremated individually.
- The ashes will be placed in an urn and stored in a standard-size niche at a Government crematorium and columbarium.
- A standard-size marble plaque, inscribed with the name of the deceased and dateof death, if made known to LTA, will be installed over the niche.
- The above services will be provided by LTA without charge.
- Claimants may arrange to keep the ashes of the cremated remains at places of their own choice at their own cost.
- Claimants may engage their own contractor to exhume the graves at their own cost before 31st May 2013. LTA will bear the cost of cremation and provision of niches at a Government crematorium and columbarium.
- All Affected Graves which are not claimed by 14th April 2013 will be exhumed in accordance with Government practice for unclaimed graves and the remains cremated individually. The ashes will be kept by LTA and thereafter scattered at sea if they remain unclaimed within 3 years after the date of exhumation.
This is the recording of the lecture by Lai Chee Kien on the material culture of Bukit Brown (click to access video).
Maintaining Heritage Series:
The Material Culture of Bukit Brown Cemetery
A talk by Dr. Lai Chee Kien,
Department of Architecture,
National University of Singapore
16 May 2012 (Wednesday)
About NUS Museum:
NUS Museum’s mission is to actively facilitate the intellectual and cultural life of the NUS community. Focusing primarily but not exclusively on Southeast Asian art and culture, the Museum contributes to and facilitates the production, reception, and preservation of knowledge through collections development and curatorial practice, developing partnerships within NUS, the cultural and heritage industry, and the global knowledge community.
The roots of NUS Museum can be traced to the establishment in 1955 of the University Art Museum at the then University of Malaya located in Singapore. Under the direction of Michael Sullivan, the museum’s first curator from 1954 to 1960, the collection was instrumental in the teaching and study of Art History at the university. Established before Singapore’s independence, the University Art Museum may be regarded as a prototypical museum institution, its historical trajectory and collection reflecting the search for a Malayan identity situated within the context of Southeast Asia, China and India.
With its diverse collection ranging from classical Chinese and Indian materials to modern and contemporary Southeast Asian art, the NUS Museum today remains an integral part of the National University of Singapore (NUS). Its collections and curatorial practices make it a comprehensive resource for teaching and research, furthering NUS’ mission to transform the way people think and work through education, research and service. In 2004, the Museum became affiliated to the NUS Centre For the Arts (CFA) – a multi-faceted arts agency that promotes the quality and growth of the arts in NUS, Singapore and beyond.
The museum has over 7000 artefacts and artworks divided across four collections: The Lee Kong Chian Collection consists of a wide representation of Chinese materials from ancient to contemporary art; the South and Southeast Asian Collection holds a range of works from Indian classical sculptures to modern pieces; and the Ng Eng Teng Collection is a donation from the late Singapore sculptor and Cultural Medallion recipient of over 1,000 artworks. A fourth collection, the Straits Chinese Collection, is located at NUS’ Baba House at 157 Neil Road.
NUS Museum also manages the Baba House located at 157 Neil Road. One of the last surviving Straits Chinese houses in Singapore, it was launched in September 2008 after comprehensive research and restoration work done in partnership with the NUS Department of Architecture and the Urban Redevelopment Authority. The Baba House was a gift from Ms Agnes Tan to the University to encourage appreciation of and research into Straits Chinese history, identity, iconography and architecture.
Chew Joo Chiat
You can find his tomb on the DIY map under Group 13.
Read how Raymond and Charles God helped the great grandson find this tomb in this blog post, which features more photos.
The great grandson, Philip, writes on his blog:
“Chew Joo Chiat was born in 1857 at a place called He Shan (禾山) in Fujian Province, China. His father was a peasant and he married very young. At age 20 he already had 2 sons Chew Cheng Lian 周请廉 Chew Cheng Swee 周请水 and 2 daughters Chew Xian Neo 周羡娘 Chew Su Lan 周素蘭. In those days, farmer’s children married young in order to have many children so that they could help out in the farm later. In fact, all the farm works were done manually from seedling to harvesting. At that time the Qing Dynasty government was corrupted and the people faced great hardship. A large number of them from the coastal provinces of south China risked themselves and left for South East Asia countries now known as ASEAN. Many crossed over the borders to Thailand and Myamar. Others sailed overseas to Philippines, Indonesia and Malaya (now Singapore and Malaysia).
In 1877 at the age of 20 years, Chew Joo Chiat left his family in China and sailed to Singapore which took about 10 days by sailing boat. The boat was overcrowded and the people was badly treated. He landed in Singapore as a young man penniless. He experienced poverty and aimed to make a fortune for himself and also to better the lives of his family back home. He worked very hard to achieve his dream. Starting from a small business and endowed with resourcefulness and business acumen he became a successful businessman.
He married a Peranakan girl Tan Quan Neo 陈颧娘 in 1890 and a daughter Chew Quee Neo 周桂娘 was born in 1891.”
P/S On your way to Chew Joo Chiat’s grave, you will pass by a cluster of graves for 8 nuns, in two rows of four graves. These Buddhist nuns are believed to have been killed during the World War II and the tiles before them feature flower-like symbols.
The editor, Lisa Li, tells us some schools have taken up these lesson plans for use in class.
“We hope the new site is easier to navigate, with additional features such as a Calendar of Events (educational), Google Translate, more country tags and more regular content (contributed by editors, individuals, NGOs and other organizations),” she writes.
She asks for contributions to this site by:
1) Sharing your educational materials (lesson plans, opinion pieces) for publishing on SchoolAsia.Org.
2) Keeping us updated with any Asia-based educational events you know of, so that we can feature it on our Calendar (we’ve included 3 events by Peranakan Museum as an example). We’ll try to keep track of what’s going on on our own, but it is best to email email@example.com.
The website: http://schoolasia.org is a free-access, crowd-sourced, carefully-curated storehouse of lesson plans, stories, discussions & ideas focused on improving education in Singapore. Lesson plan topics revolve around current affairs, humanities and the arts.
The unique feature of this website is that it crowd-sources good quality lesson plans with a local context that teachers can use straightaway in their classes. With this website, we hope to tap on the energy and resources of passionate individuals and organisations to support teachers.
Our aim is also to make it easier for academics, NGOs & other organisations to connect directly to the classroom through lesson plans for teachers. We believe such specialised knowledge would definitely enrich lessons in schools.
This is in line with a key objective of all things Bukit Brown, which was conceived as an educational tool for students and teachers to self-guide. Our blog was born out of the twin desire to record history and, in a nod to our pioneers, contribute to education by sharing what we learn and find. We urge teachers and students to look into these case studies provided by SchoolAsia.org.
Where to begin?
- Oral communication
- Family documents (e.g. letters, bills)
- Public records (e.g. clan association records)
- Internet search engines (e.g. Google)
- Newspaper archives (e.g. newspaperSG) http://newspapers.nl.sg/
- Enclose names with quotation marks when submitting a search, e.g. “Tan Kim Huat”
- Remember that spellings were not consistent in colonial records. Try variations, e.g. Ki, Khim, Kheam, etc
- OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software may misrepresent some alphabets, e.g. m= rn, e=o, b=6, g=9. Try variations.
- Verify against time and place. People may share identical names. Make sure the age, place and dates correspond to the search subject.
- An obituary is the best source for tracing your lineage
- A search for a grandchild’s name may yield names of grandparents and relatives
- Place of residence is often publicized
- Place of burial often stated
A war hero who received a grand send-off when he died. A coolie honoured by his clan association when he was re-interred at Bukit Brown when it opened as a municapital cemetery. The paternal grandmother of the sitting Singapore president.
Group 1 on Block 5 near the cemetery gates is a good introduction to what lies within the vast grounds of Bukit Brown Chinese Cemetery, which closed as a municipal cemetery in 1973.
This DIY guide is to help you find your own way using this map.
Tay Koh Yat (1880-1957)
He was a pioneer in Singapore’s public transportation, but also a feisty patriot who started and led his own self defence force of 20,000 during the onset of the Japanese Occupation of Singapore in World War 2. In 1938, Tay noticed that local transportation was inadequate and started the Tay Koh Yat Bus Company. He built up his fleet to 120 buses and became the largest bus operator among the 10 other bus companies.Tay Koh Yat’s grave comes with a generous forecourt and benches.
Fang Shan (__-1833)
At that time there was a small Fang Clan group of labourers (from Lieyu, little Kinmen) calling itself Boon San Association. This Boon San Association was established for the welfare of coolies working around the Singapore River at that time whereby most of them have surname Fang. It is now known as Boon San Lian Ngee Association
At that time, Mr Fang Ma Teng informed that in 1941, when he was around 30 years old, he remembered hearing about the history of this Fang pioneer from his seniors and the relocation of the grave. Apparently the group of coolies saw the the tomb of Fang Shang, and seeing the date of the tomb as 1833 and his surname Fang, recognized him as an early pioneer of their clan who came to Singapore.
The tomb was in a dilapidated condition due to so many years of abandonment, but the Fang Clan decided to relocate the tomb to Bukit Brown cemetery for two reasons:
1) To leave behind a legacy for the Fang Clan to remember their pioneer
Mrs Tan Cheng Siong (d. 1965)
Mrs Tan Cheng Siong, nee Lee Guay Eng, is mother of Tan Chin Guan, which makes her the paternal grandmother of Singapore’s President Tony Tan Keng Yam.
Hers is a Christian tomb, using more secular design features such as the lotus seed. The tomb also features both English and Mandarin script. It uses the Ming Guo (Ming Republic) calendar, based on the 1911 Revolution as year zero. The revolution marked the end of the Chinese imperial dynasties and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.
(Members of Sun Yat Sen’s Tongmenhui (United League), part of the Chinese diaspora who helped in the cause of the revolution, are buried in Bukit Brown.)
Tan Chin Guan’s name is inscribed on her tomb.
(Raymond Goh, amateur historian, has also found the grave of Tan Cheng Siong, the grandfather of the president on Block 5. See his letter to the president here. )
A Municipal Comissioner who helped make Bukit Brown Cemetery a reality. A beautifully restored Teochew tomb. A well-known banker. A cluster of 1830s graves. Intricate carvings, Sikh guards, even a set of naked angels.
These are among the tombs of pioneers you will find in Group 2 on Block 2 behind the Heritage Roundabout within the vast grounds of Bukit Brown Chinese Cemetery, which closed as a municipal cemetery in 1973. Hill 2 is a quiet hill with gentle slopes, nice for a stroll. It is in the path of the proposed highway, with affected graves marked as 7 and 8 in the LTA map.
This DIY guide is to help you find your own way around Bukit Brown Heritage Park using this map, which is a division map according to the burial register We show some tombs, with links for more reading, and other interesting features.
Cheong Koon Seng
A well-known alumni of Anglo-Chinese School. Tomb whisperer Raymond Goh blogs about him here.
Cheong Koon Seng is associated with:
- The auction company he founded in pre-war Singapore;
- The Chinese Swimming Club, where he held the position of president for several terms;
- The Anglo-Chinese School, which has a ‘house’ carrying his name; and
- Koon Seng Road in the heart of Peranakan Katong.
Wee Chim Yean (1885-1926)
Wee Chim Yean is the Capitan China or Kapitan China of Bengkalis. Bengkalis is a place is the Riau archipelago off east coast Sumatra Islands. Read more from Rojak Librarian’s blog.
His tomb has beautifully intricate carvings:
See Tiong Wah
See was a Justice of Peace and the Municipal Commissioner who together with Kheam Hock was in charge of Bukit Brown. Raymond found his grave and pays tribute here.
For an explanation of his tomb panels, see this post on the love of flowers.
Part of the cluster
Lim Kim Seng
This blog post by Rojak Librarian will tell you more about Lim Kim Seng. Don’t miss these beautiful tombs.
Born in 1884, Lim Kim Seng is buried with his two wives and mother. They make for an exquisite Teochew tomb cluster. His tomb indicates he is both a Member of the British Empire and a Justice of Peace, signifying his standing as a Teochew community leader. In 1940, he helped found Ngee Ann Girls School (which in 1967 accepted boys and became Ngee Ann Primary School).
He sat on the board of directors of the Overseas Assurance Corp. with other Bukit Brown “residents”, Tan Ean Khiam, Ong Boon Tat and Lim Nee Soon (chairman of the board).
Stakes are attached beside their tombs indicating they are slated for exhumation. Lim Kim Seng – no. 1930; Teo Nghee Cheng (first wife) – no. 1914; Sng Chew Lan (second wife) – no. 1926; Sng Sye Chen (mother of Lim Kim Seng) – no. 1931. His tomb was just above See Teong Wah, who has a family cluster of more than 10 tombs.
Tan Lian Boh
Tan Chor Lam, alias Tan Lian Chye, was his famous brother. Tan Chor Lam was the president of the Tongmenhui and a leading revolutionary who supported the formation of the Republic of China. Read more here by Rojak Librarian.
(The Tongmenhui is a group of men who were part of a resistance front also known as the Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance and United Allegiance Society. It was formed by Sun Yat-sen and Song Jiaoren in Japan on 20 August 1905 when merging many Chinese revolutionary groups objecting to foreign rule.In 1906, a branch was formed in Singapore, following Sun’s visit there. Tan Chor Lam was among the first 3 members. Read more on Tongmenhui pioneers here)
Khoo Kay Hian (1878-1966)
At the turn of the last century, he established Kay Hian & Co (Pte) to deal in commodities and securities. The company beca,e one of the founder members of the Singapore Stockbrokers Association which was subsequently re-constituted under the name of the Stock Exchange of Malaysia and Singapore. (UOB Kay Hian Holdings (UOBKH) was formed in 2000 from the merger of Kay Hian Holdings and UOB Securities, the stockbroking arm of banking giant United Overseas Bank. ) His name lives on.
Tan Yong Thian
The tomb, recently restored by his grand daughter Rosalind Tan, is an example of a Teochew tomb, which has a different tomb design from the predominantly Hokkien tombs at Bukit Brown. She enlisted tomb keeper Lim took months to restore this tomb, which will narrowly miss the proposed highway, although there is uncertainty as to whether workers may encroach on this space for their needs.
From “Biographies of Prominent Chinese” (Biographical Publishing Co. Inc., Shanghai, 1925):
“Mr Tan Yong-Thian, better known as Tan Ah-Tian, a native of the district of Chaoyang, Swatow, in the province of Kwangtung, was born in 1855, of very humble parents. At the age of 27, Mr. Tan went to Singhapore, where he started life as a building contractor. After many years of hard labour, he had erected many buildings in the colony, and had succeeded in accumulating comfortable means. In 1895, he gave up his work as a building contractor with the intention of living in retirement.
Realising the great importance of the produce industry in the Straits, he made profitable investmnets in various plantations, such as gambier, pepper, citronella, cocoa-nut, and rbber. Feeling that he was too young and energetic to retire, he became actively engaged in the development of these plantations. They proved very profitable.
Mr. Tan decided to increase his earnings by establishing plants to distil and refine the raw spices from his plantations. He was particularly interested in patchouli oil distillation, an industry which had long since ceased to exist in the Settlements, for various reasons. He had put into operation an essential oil plant for the distilling of citronella on a small scale but he was not satisfied with this effort, and was the first Chinese to take up the distillation of patchouli oil.
Although the business was, for the first few years, confined to local trade, he devoted the greater part of his time to this business; and he succeeded in increasing the output to such an extent that foreign markets had to be found. Thus, eventually, the product was shipped to all of the principal commercial centers of the world. The oil is of the highest grade that it is possible to obtain, and is of the standard equal to the nest European production. The firm, Chau Seng Heng & Co. has become of the largest producers of essential oils in the Straits Settlements.
Mr. Tan is the eldest son of a large family residing in Singapore. He is married, and is the father of five sos and two daughters, Two of his sons, Tan Khim-chua and Tan Guan-chua, are joint partners in business with his eldest son-in-law.
Patience and perseverance have won for Mr. Tan the success he indeed deserves. A straightforward and courteous man, he is well liked by all who come into contact with him; but being of a reticent nature, and preferring to lead a quiet life, he is little known outside of a limited circle of friends.”
Lee Kim Soo (1887-1933)
Here lies a man who was behind matchsticks!
(postscript of tomb find: tombkeeper Lim aka Ah Tiong aka Ah Chye helped tomb whisperer Raymond Goh clear this grave at no expense. He joins the community of Bukit Brown brownies which serves the public and helps uncover tomb finds and clears the way for visitors to share what knowledge we uncover.)
His neighbour is also interesting: a tomb with fusion features
There is a cluster of headstones depicting different reign years from Chinese emperors. These are re-burials. With only the headstones and no shoulders, etc, this looks more like a memorial garden. The stakes indicate they will make way for the proposed highway. What will become of these historical artifacts?
Hill 2 is a small but beautifully lush hill, with many stakes. We encourage you to enjoy the vistas and explore the many exquisitely carved tombs while you still have access to them. We feature some highlights here.
Here’s a letter from descendants appealing for the highway project to be stopped.
Hill 2 has many intricately carved tombs.
Near the 1830′s tomb cluster, find a path off the road and look for an unusual tomb with Sikh guards and cherubic angels.
While not all of Hill 2 will make way for the highway, access in the future may be affected. Enjoy these vistas, the serenity and bird life before the character of Bukit Brown changes.
With the government’s announcement to build a proposed highway, the Land Transport Authority has published its notice of exhumation. To aid members of the public, tomb whisperer Raymond Goh has put it in this searchable format: click here
Tombs affected have been documented and photographed here
If you are looking for your relative, the number refers to the number on the stake, not the tomb plot.